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LE PORTAIL ROMAN

Au début du Moyen Âge, l’art roman se développe en Europe. Beaucoup d’églises et de cathédrales sont construites car la religion est très importante dans la vie quotidienne. Le portail est la grande porte d’entrée de l’église. C’est un lieu de passage très important entre le monde extérieur et le monde religieux à l’intérieur. Il est vraiment monumental ! Juste avant les portes, on passe entre deux murs que l’on appelle les ébrasements. Ils ressemblent un peu à des bras ouverts qui nous invitent à entrer. Viennent ensuite les portes principales. La partie sculptée au dessus en forme de demi-cercle s’appelle le tympan. Mais les sculpteurs veulent toujours plus de place pour sculpter dans cet endroit essentiel. Pour que le tympan toujours plus grand, ne s’effondre pas, les bâtisseurs le posent sur une longue pierre horizontale très solide : le linteau. Mais comme cela ne suffit toujours pas pour bien le soutenir, ils ajoutent un pilier au milieu : le trumeau. Puis ils entourent le tympan de bandeaux en forme d’arcs de cercles appelés voussures.

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